Nearly, 10 percent of total couples face problem of infertility out of which women infertility contributes in nearly 60 percent of these cases. Medically, inability to conceive after mating with fertile male partner for one year regularly in absence of any serious disease is regarded as a case of women infertility. Process of conception is complex in women and many organs play a part in completing this process, any hindrance or malfunction can prevent conception. Ovaries after menstruation produce eggs which through Fallopian tubes get transferred into Uterus. These eggs when leave ovary can be fertilized and implant themselves over inner lining of Uterus called Endometrium.
In case when eggs are not fertilized Uterus sheds the inner lining and eggs which then pass out in the form of menstrual blood. If female conceives the Endometrium supports and houses the growing fetus and menstrual flow stops till child-birth. All these functions require proper hormonal support and secretion of complete hormonal group. Hormones like GnRH, FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone and male hormone Testosterone should be secreted at right time and in proper amount to allow ovulation, fertilization and conception. This intricate process can get hindered by various factors.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is one of the major causes of women infertility. This disease is caused by various bacterial infections which can affect Fallopian tubes of a woman and block the smooth passage of eggs to Uterus. Sexually transmitted diseases, non-sterile Abortions, Appendix rupture and Pelvic Tuberculosis are few commonly found causes of PID or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
Endometriosis is next to PID in causing infertility in women. Endometriosis is a condition where endometrial lining in the Uterus implants at other parts of reproductive system. It can implant itself in Fallopian tubes and block them, implantation at Ovaries prevents release of egg and these can form a web between Ovaries, Fallopian tubes and Uterus to prevent egg from implanting itself in Uterus. All of these conditions can cause obstructions in conception.
Uterine Fibroids is another one of the major causes of infertility in women over age of 30 years. Large fibroids over uterine lining block Fallopian tubes and distort the shape of uterine cavity or alter position of cervix to prevent conception.
PCOS or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is hormone induced problem causing infertility in women. Higher level of Androgen in women body causes higher secretion of LH and lesser secretion of FSH; this prevents follicles from producing healthy and matured egg.
Premature Ovarian failure or early menopause is also hormone induced problem which reduce chances of women to conceive as low to 5 percent though this problem affects only 1 percent of women yet it is significant cause of infertility in women.
High level of Prolactin hormone and structural problems by birth or acquired through surgeries, treatments, injuries causing scarring of internal linings of female reproductive organs are other commonly found reasons of infertility in women.