First of all lets know some basic information about diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to the world.Now many people are rapidly becoming prey to this disorder. In fact it has now become a common disease than what it used to be before couple of decades. And the number is further expected to reach a very large amount by 2020. At present millions of people are suffering from diabetes mellitus.
This disorder is characterized by increased level of glucose in the blood than the normal range. And also sweet urine is common in diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more common which is due to the improper utilization of insulin or low production of insulin in the body. We know that insulin is a major hormone that plays vital role in controlling the carbohydrate in the blood.
In type 1 diabetes the beta cells of the pancreas which secrete insulin are rapidly destroyed by the antibodies of the body. It is a genetic auto immune disorder. It is also called as juvenile diabetes.
The common symptom is,
- Abnormal blood glucose level
- Extreme thirst
- Extraordinary time for wounds to be healed
- Polyurea etc.
When the insulin production is low then it can be treated with oral sugar-lowering drugs which include phenformin, metformin, glibenclamide, glipizide etc. But if it is due to the total absence of insulin then external insulin has to be taken to control the sugar in the blood. Many preparations of insulin is available in the market. Nowadays the insulin pen is also available which facilitates easy administration of insulin. Insulin is administered in Subcutaneous route since it is inactive in the oral route. The measuring units of insulin are to be taken daily by the patient.