Insulin is a prime reason for the Diabetes mellitus which is a disease characterised by high sugar levels in blood. It may be due to either low production of insulin from the pancreas or due to inability of body cells to utilize the available insulin which is called Type 2 diabetes and in type 1 diabetes the body produces antibodies against the beta cells which gets destroyed by this autoimmune disorder. Insulin therapy for Diabetes is very much effective in practice throughout the world. Insulin therapy is widely used from ages for most of the diabetic patients who have less or no production of insulin in the body. Insulin is a prime hormone which regulates the glucose level in the blood and helps in the further metabolism of glucose.
Insulin was prepared from the mammalian pancreas which was very expensive and time-consuming process and the need for insulin eventually increased due to a large number of patients and that lead the discovery of synthetic production of insulin using Recombination DNA technology which is very fast and with high quality output than the former method.
Insulin is available in three types viz Long-acting, Intermediate-acting and Short-acting insulin which is available as a unit dose. It is quite troublesome to administer it since it needs to be injected subcutaneously using a syringe.
Insulin is indeed a lifesaver for all the diabetic patients and there is research going on about formulating it in a sublingual tablet which has to be kept below the tongue it does not enter the liver and directly to the blood circulation since insulin becomes inactive in the stomach.